Arithmetic

These blending modes are based on simple maths.

Addition

Adds the numerical values of two colours together:

Yellow(1, 1, 0) + Blue(0, 0, 1) = White(1, 1, 1)

Darker Gray(0.4, 0.4, 0.4) + Lighter Gray(0.5, 0.5, 0.5) = Even Lighter Gray (0.9, 0.9, 0.9)

../../_images/Blending_modes_Addition_Gray_0.4_and_Gray_0.5_n.png

Left: Normal. Right: Addition.

Light Blue(0.1608, 0.6274, 0.8274) + Orange(1, 0.5961, 0.0706) = (1.1608, 1.2235, 0.8980) → Very Light Yellow(1, 1, 0.8980)

../../_images/Blending_modes_Addition_Light_blue_and_Orange.png

Left: Normal. Right: Addition.

Red(1, 0, 0) + Grey(0.5, 0.5, 0.5) = Pink(1, 0.5, 0.5)

../../_images/Blending_modes_Addition_Red_plus_gray.png

Left: Normal. Right: Addition.

When the result of the addition is more than 1, white is the color displayed. Therefore, white plus any other color results in white. On the other hand, black plus any other color results in the added color.

../../_images/Blending_modes_Addition_Sample_image_with_dots.png

Left: Normal. Right: Addition.

Divide

Divides the numerical value from the lower color by the upper color.

Red(1, 0, 0) / Gray(0.5, 0.5, 0.5) = (2, 0, 0) → Red(1, 0, 0)

Darker Gray(0.4, 0.4, 0.4) / Lighter Gray(0.5, 0.5, 0.5) = Even Lighter Gray (0.8, 0.8, 0.8)

../../_images/Blending_modes_Divide_Gray_0.4_and_Gray_0.5_n.png

Left: Normal. Right: Divide.

Light Blue(0.1608, 0.6274, 0.8274) / Orange(1, 0.5961, 0.0706) = (0.1608, 1.0525, 11.7195) → Aqua(0.1608, 1, 1)

../../_images/Blending_modes_Divide_Light_blue_and_Orange.png

Left: Normal. Right: Divide.

../../_images/Blending_modes_Divide_Sample_image_with_dots.png

Left: Normal. Right: Divide.

Inverse Subtract

This inverts the lower layer before subtracting it from the upper layer.

Lighter Gray(0.5, 0.5, 0.5)_(1_Darker Gray(0.4, 0.4, 0.4)) = (-0.1, -0.1, -0.1) → Black(0, 0, 0)

../../_images/Blending_modes_Inverse_Subtract_Gray_0.4_and_Gray_0.5_n.png

Left: Normal. Right: Inverse Subtract.

Orange(1, 0.5961, 0.0706)_(1_Light Blue(0.1608, 0.6274, 0.8274)) = (0.1608, 0.2235, -0.102) → Dark Green(0.1608, 0.2235, 0)

../../_images/Blending_modes_Inverse_Subtract_Light_blue_and_Orange.png

Left: Normal. Right: Inverse Subtract.

../../_images/Blending_modes_Inverse_Subtract_Sample_image_with_dots.png

Left: Normal. Right: Inverse Subtract.

Multiply

Multiplies the two colors with each other, but does not go beyond the upper limit.

This is often used to color in a black and white lineart. One puts the black and white lineart on top, and sets the layer to ‘Multiply’, and then draw in color on a layer beneath. Multiply will all the colour to go through.

White(1,1,1) x White(1, 1, 1) = White(1, 1, 1)

White(1, 1, 1) x Grey(0.5, 0.5, 0.5) = Grey(0.5, 0.5, 0.5)

Darker Gray(0.4, 0.4, 0.4) x Lighter Gray(0.5, 0.5, 0.5) = Even Darker Gray (0.2, 0.2, 0.2)

../../_images/Blending_modes_Multiply_Gray_0.4_and_Gray_0.5_n.png

Left: Normal. Right: Multiply.

Light Blue(0.1608, 0.6274, 0.8274) x Orange(1, 0.5961, 0.0706) = Green(0.1608, 0.3740, 0.0584)

../../_images/Blending_modes_Multiply_Light_blue_and_Orange.png

Left: Normal. Right: Multiply.

../../_images/Blending_modes_Multiply_Sample_image_with_dots.png

Left: Normal. Right: Multiply.

Subtract

Subtracts the top layer from the bottom layer.

White(1, 1, 1)_White(1, 1, 1) = Black(0, 0, 0)

White(1, 1, 1)_Grey(0.5, 0.5, 0.5) = Grey(0.5, 0.5, 0.5)

Darker Gray(0.4, 0.4, 0.4)_Lighter Gray(0.5, 0.5, 0.5) = (-0.1, -0.1, -0.1) → Black(0, 0, 0)

../../_images/Blending_modes_Subtract_Gray_0.4_and_Gray_0.5_n.png

Left: Normal. Right: Subtract.

Light Blue(0.1608, 0.6274, 0.8274) - Orange(1, 0.5961, 0.0706) = (-0.8392, 0.0313, 0.7568) → Blue(0, 0.0313, 0.7568)

../../_images/Blending_modes_Subtract_Light_blue_and_Orange.png

Left: Normal. Right: Subtract.

../../_images/Blending_modes_Subtract_Sample_image_with_dots.png

Left: Normal. Right: Subtract.